A spokesman for the Ministry of Public Health said around 20 people were killed and 38 others wounded in the deadly explosion, Khaama Press reported.
President Ashraf Ghani condemned the horrific attack and called it “inhumane and unforgiveable”.
“By this act, the enemies of the Afghan people once again showed their enmity towards the people,” he said.
Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah also condemned the killings.
“I condole with the families of the victims in today’s terrorist attack… The blood of our people isn’t cheap and wont be wasted.”
It was not immediately clear who was responsible for the horror but a similar incident in the same area last month which killed 22 people was claimed by the Taliban.
The Supreme Court is located on a road leading to the US embassy and Kabul airport.